The differences of contour, density and form between Latin & Kanji
In Latin script, a word is composed with alphabets arranged from left to right. The contour of a word can be viewed as a horizontal rectangular shape. Most strokes go vertically than horizontally with similar thickness. The negative spaces between the strokes are also visually equivalent. Overall, the texture of Latin script looks pretty even ⓐ.
Kanji (2), in another way, is totally different. Although it is also composed with small units. With its complex composition, some are constituted with single unit and some with multiple ones. Some characters are assembled with just a few strokes while some others may go up to twenty or more ⓐ. Unlike Latin script, the stroke thickness in Kanji varies from one to another, depends on its structure and the amount of the strokes ⓑ. Although they are drawn within squares, the actual character contour is not always a square. It can be a triangle like “森,” a diamond shape like “今,” or a vertical rectangle like “目.” A word/phrase is usually made up with one to three (or more) Kanji, which makes the word contour even more complicate. The difference of their density, shapes and the visual rhythm makes it challenging to create bilingual letterings.
In addition to the overall look, their stroke direction is also distinctly different. The amount of vertical stroke in Kanji is usually more than the horizontal ones, which is opposite in Latin script. There is no real circular stroke in Kanji (only stroke 撇, 捺 and 鈎 are slightly “curvy” ⓒ) However, nearly half of the Latin alphabets contain circular shape. Some are even close to a full round shape, especially O, Q, C, D, o, b, d, p and q. How these round shapes are designed is one of the key factor of type personality ⓓ. For instance, making the the rounds more squarish will change the type personality a lot, but this factor can not be applied in Kanji since most of the stroke are relatively straight. The structural differences discussed above will be the challenges in developing bilingual letterings.
歐文(羅馬字)是拼音文字，單詞是由字母做為單位橫向左右排列而成。字詞外型成左右長型 ⓐ ， 筆畫上下多，左右少。文字間的空白及間距相近、線條粗細統一、視覺節奏均勻 ⓑ 。
漢字(2)大致上也是由一個一個小單位組成，但是組成方式複雜，疏密不一；有單獨成字，也有多重複雜結構 ⓐ；筆畫可以只有三五筆，也可多至數十筆。漢字的筆畫粗細依據筆畫數目以及結構會有所改變，視覺上形成有趣的疏密韻律 ⓑ 。雖然大致上漢字是繪製於方塊中，它的實體外型並非都是正方形，有三角形的如「森」、菱形的如「今」、縱長方形的如「目」等等。
除此之外，兩者的筆畫方向及造型也相去甚遠。漢字通常橫劃多，而歐文縱劃多。特別在製作圖案化標準字時兩者的緊密度差異常常會過大。漢字中也沒有真正圓形的筆畫（僅有稍微彎曲的撇、捺、鈎 ⓒ），然而歐文中，圓形偏偏又是最重要的角色之一，將近一半的字母擁有圓弧筆畫，更有幾乎是圓形為主的O, Q, C, D, o, b, d, p, q等等。圓弧筆畫的設計常常是該設計的重要關鍵，例如稍微改變歐文中圓弧筆畫的設計，讓它變得比較方正一些，整個文字的性格就會變得完全不同 ⓓ。但是同樣的概念卻無法被應用在漢字的設計上，因為多數的筆畫都是筆直的。以上這些歧異都是設計雙語標準字可能會遇見的挑戰。
Basic typography knowledge of both languages
It is essential to have basic typographic knowledge of both languages, such as configuration, proportion, optical correction and so on. For example, the four squares in character 東 are all in different sizes. The “O” is usually taller and lower than “I,” which is called overshoot ⓔ． Besides, since the scripts are traditionally drawn with different tools, their stroke weight distribution never goes the same way. Graphic designer tend to apply the traits from one script to the other directly without considering the fundamental rules of foreign type, which may make the type looks stiff or even unrecognizable.
在繪製雙語標準字時，需要先有兩種文字的基本常識，如視覺修正、空間比例、筆畫構造等等。例如，歐文中O要比I高，稱做overshoot。而漢字中「東」字中四個「口」大小的也都不同等等 ⓔ。 另外，兩種文字在傳統上使用的書寫工具不同，使得筆畫粗細的分佈規則 (weight distribution) 完全不同。設計師容易直接將既有文字的特色強加在不熟悉的外語文字，或單純僅以平面設計的眼光，將文字視為圖案而忽略了該文字的基本規則，做出不自然、不協調的文字設計。